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 Rules of soccer" redirects here. For the principles of different football games, see Football.

Main article: Laws of the sport (association football) There are seventeen laws within the official Laws of the sport, every containing a set of stipulation and guidelines. an equivalent laws are designed to use to any or all levels of football, though sure modifications for teams appreciate juniors, seniors, ladies and folks with physical disabilities are permitted. The laws are usually framed in broad terms, which permit flexibility in their application looking on the character of the game. The Laws of the Game are printed by FIFA, however are maintained by the International soccer Association Board (IFAB).[79] additionally to the seventeen laws, various IFAB choices and different directives contribute to the regulation of football.[80][81] Players, equipment, and officers See also: football game positions, Formation (association football), Substitute (association football), and Kit (association football) The referee officiates during a football match every team consists of a most of 11 players (excluding substitutes), one in every of whom should be the goalkeeper. Competition rules could state a minimum variety of players needed to represent a team, that is typically seven. Goalkeepers are thereforele} players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they are doing so at intervals the penalty space ahead of their own goal. tho' there are a range of positions during which the parcel (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions aren't outlined or needed by the Laws.[75] the essential instrumentality or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. associate degree jock and protecting cup is extremely suggested for male players by medical examiners and professionals.[82][83] Headgear is not a needed piece of basic equipment, however players nowadays could value more highly to wear it to shield themselves from head injury.[84] Players are impermissible to wear or use something that's dangerous to themselves or another player, appreciate jewelry or watches. The goalkeeper should wear wear that is simply distinguishable from that worn by the opposite players and also the match officials.[85] variety of players is also replaced by substitutes throughout the course of the game. the most number of substitutions permissible in best international and domestic league games is 3 in ninety minutes with each team being allowed a new if the sport ought to get in extra-time, tho' the permissible variety could vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution embrace injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a plan of action switch, or timewasting at the top of a finely poised game. In customary adult matches, a player who has been substituted might not take any half during a match.[86] IFAB recommends "that a match shouldn't continue if there are fewer than seven players in either team". Any call relating to points awarded for abandoned games is left to the individual soccer associations.[87] A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the sport in reference to the match to that he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose choices are final. The referee is power-assisted by 2 assistant referees. In several high-level games there's additionally a fourth official who assists the referee and should replace another official should the necessity arise.[88] line technology is employed to live if the entire ball has crossed the goal-line thereby deciding whether or not a goal has been scored or not; this was brought in to stop there being controversy. Video assistant referees (VAR) have additionally been progressively introduced in high-level matches to help officers through video replays to correct clear and obvious mistakes. There are four sorts of calls which will be reviewed: mistaken identity in grant a red or yellow card, goals and whether or not there was a violation throughout the buildup, direct red card decisions, and penalty decisions.[89] Ball Main article: Ball (association football) The ball is spherical with a circumference of between sixty eight and seventy cm (27 and twenty eight in), a weight within the vary of 410 to 450 g (14 to sixteen oz), and a pressure between 0.6 and 1.1 standard atmospheres (8.5 and 15.6 pounds per sq. inch) perplexed level. within the past the ball was created of animal skin panels stitched together, with a latex bladder for pressurisation however trendy balls in any respect levels of the sport are currently synthetic.[90][91] Pitch Main article: soccer pitch customary pitch measurements (See Imperial version) because the Laws were developed in England, and were ab initio administered entirely by the four British football associations at intervals IFAB, the quality dimensions of a soccer pitch were originally categoricaled in imperial units. The Laws currently express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by ancient units in brackets), tho' use of imperial units remains fashionable in communicative countries with a comparatively recent history of metrification (or solely partial metrication), appreciate Britain.[92] The length of the pitch, or field, for international adult matches is within the vary of 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and also the breadth is in the range of 64–75 m (70–80 yd). Fields for non-international matches is also 90–120 m (100–130 yd) length and 45–90 m (50–100 yd) in width, as long as the pitch doesn't become square. In 2008, the IFAB ab initio approved a set size of one hundred and five m (115 yd) long and sixty eight m (74 yd) wide as a customary pitch dimension for international matches;[93] however, this call was later placed on hold and was ne'er really implemented.[94] The longer boundary lines are touchlines, whereas the shorter boundaries (on that the goals are placed) are goal lines. an oblong goal is positioned on every goal line, midway between the 2 touchlines.[95] The inner edges of the vertical goal posts should be 7.32 m (24 ft) apart, and also the lower fringe of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts should be 2.44 m (8 ft) on top of the ground. Nets are sometimes placed behind the goal, however aren't needed by the Laws.[96] ahead of the goal is that the penalty space. This area is marked by the line, 2 lines beginning on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) from the goalposts and increasing 16.5 m (18 yd) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line connexion them. This area encompasses a variety of functions, the most outstanding being to mark wherever the goalkeeper could handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. different markings outline the position of the ball or players at kick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks.[97] period and tie-breaking ways 90-minute normal time a customary adult soccer match consists of two-halves of forty five minutes each. every 0.5 runs continuously, that means that the clock isn't stopped once the ball is out of play. there's sometimes a 15-minute half-time break between halves. The end of the match is understood as full-time.[98] The referee is that the official timekeeper for the match, and should build an allowance for time lost through substitutions, eviscerate players requiring attention, or different stoppages. This additional time is termed extra time in FIFA documents,[99][100] however is most ordinarily observed as stoppage time or injury time, whereas lost time may be used as a synonym. The period of stoppage time is at the only real discretion of the referee. Stoppage time doesn't totally complete the time during which the ball is out of play, and a 90-minute game usually involves concerning associate degree hour of "effective taking part in time".[101][102] The referee alone signals the top of the match. In matches wherever a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half, the referee signals what number minutes of stoppage time they shall add. The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time is also any extended by the referee.[98] additional time was introduced due to an occasion that happened in 1891 throughout a match between tend and Aston Villa. Trailing 1–0 and with simply 2 minutes remaining, tend were awarded a penalty. Villa' goalkeeper kicked the ball out of the ground, and by the time the ball had been recovered, the ninety minutes had move on {and the|and therefore the|and additionally the} game was over.[103] an equivalent law also states that the period of either 0.5 is extended till the penalty kick to be taken or retaken is completed, therefore no game shall finish with a penalty to be taken.[104] Tie-breaking Main article: deciding the result of a Match (association soccer) Most football competitions use a penalty scrap to make a decision the winner if a match ends as a draw united competitions, games could end during a draw. In knockout competitions wherever a winner is needed varied ways is also utilized to interrupt such a deadlock; some competitions may invoke replays.[105] A game tied at the top of period of time may get in additional time, that consists of 2 any 15-minute periods. If the score remains tied once extra time, some competitions enable the employment of penalty shootouts (known formally within the Laws of the sport as "kicks from the penalty mark") to work out which team can achieve consecutive stage of the tournament. Goals scored throughout additional time periods count towards the ultimate score of the game, however kicks from the penalty mark are solely accustomed decide the team that progresses to consecutive a part of the tournament (with goals scored {in a|during a|in associate degree exceedingly|in a very} penalty scrap not creating up part of the final score).[4] In competitions exploitation two-legged matches, every team competes reception once, with an mixture score from the 2 matches deciding which team progresses. wherever aggregates are equal, the away goals rule is also used to confirm the winners, during which case the winner is that the team that scored the foremost goals within the leg they vie faraway from home. If the result's still equal, additional time and doubtless a penalty scrap are required.[4] Ball in and out of play Main article: Ball in and out of play A player takes a free kick, whereas the opposition kind a "wall" to do to dam the ball beneath the Laws, the 2 basic states of play throughout a game are ball live and ball out of play. From the start of every period of play with a kick-off till the top of the taking part in amount, the ball is live in any respect times, except once either the ball leaves the sphere of play, or play is stopped by the referee. once the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one in every of eight restart ways looking on however it went out of play: Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to start every period of play.[73] Throw-in: when the ball has crossed the touchline; awarded to the opposing team to it that last touched the ball.[106] Goal kick: once the ball has altogether crossed the line while not a goal having been scored associate degreed having last been touched by a player of the offensive team; awarded to defensive team.[107] Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the defending team; awarded to attacking team.[108] Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, sure technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution or dismiss an opponent without a particular foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly (without the ball initial touching associate degreeother player) from an indirect place-kicking.[109] Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following sure listed "penal" fouls.[109] A goal is also scored directly from an immediate free kick. Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul sometimes punishable by a direct free kick however that has occurred at intervals their opponent' penalty area.[110] Dropped-ball: happens once the referee has stopped play for the other reason, appreciate a heavy injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball turning into defective.[73]